FORCE Technology is actively involved in many standardization activities across many industries.
From autonomous vehicles to precision agriculture, smart manufacturing, e-health, and smart cities, the IoT is already everywhere – and growing. With the development of the IoT, its users and manufacturers become more and more concerned with ensuring the safety of people, systems, devices, data transmission channels, etc. So, it is necessary to ensure International Standards for the entire IoT.
ISO/IEC and IEEE has developed standards in this area and bring all security requirements to a single universal form. Standards provide people and organizations with a basis for a mutual understanding of the IoT. This ranges from standards for calibration of gas flow meters, over standards for compliance of wireless communication, to standards for IoT implementations and considerations. We do this to: • Align our understanding of deeply specialized technical topics across the world • It helps us to create a concise common vocabulary for emerging technologies • Be aware of emerging standards that are relevant for the Industry to thrive • Be able to ensure that the content of the standards is aligned with our interests from a Danish and European perspective
IOT based ISO/IEC & IEEE Standards
In the following we have collected a brief resume of some of the important standards for IoT. We have chosen to focus on standards from three major Standard Development Organisations: ISO/IEC and IEEE, as they are usually widely adopted and organized. But it is important to mention that also significant work in organisations such as ITU, CEN/CENELEC, ETSI. In addition to this there are many standards that are essential for IoT to function properly, that emerge from industry associations, non-profit collaborations etc.
ISO/IEC 30141 — Internet of Things (IoT) - Reference architecture provides an internationally standardized IoT Reference Architecture, which the organization said will help ensure that connected systems are "seamless, safer and far more resilient." It aims to achieve this by providing a common framework for IoT application designers and developers and facilitating the development of reliable systems, which means that they are reliable, secure, privacy-friendly and can withstand disruptions such as be natural disasters and attacks. It highlights functional requirement such as Data Management, Device Management, Security, Confidentially and privacy, it also highlight non-functional requirement such as maintainability, reliability, usability, high availability, and scalability of your system. So, using reference architecture it is possible for outsiders to understand your system and further a higher interoperability, which enables others to use your data. IoT Reference Architecture highlighting six domains and related entities which communicate and exchange data by means of the network.
IoT things may interconnect and connect to the Internet. Insecure things may impact security and privacy, in ways that differ from more conventional IT systems (e.g. desktops, laptops and servers). Therefore, appropriate security and privacy controls are necessary. ISO/IEC 27400 — Cybersecurity — IoT security and privacy – Guidelines provide guidance on the principles, information risk and controls for IoT security and privacy. It also provide guidance on security features expected of all IoT devices. And ISO/IEC 27402 — Cybersecurity — IoT security and privacy - Device baseline requirements provide guidance on the basic, commonplace security features expected of all IoT devices, enabling the IoT security controls. While ISO/IEC 27402.2 — Cybersecurity — IoT security and privacy – Guidelines for IOT domotics provide information security and privacy of IoT for home use is a challenge given the variety of things, home circumstances, security and privacy issues and controls
One of the aims is to assist stakeholders in creating a vertical specific architecture ensuring that IoT-based applications are resilient, safe, and easy to use and access. ISO/IEC 30149 ED1: Internet of Things (IoT) - Trustworthiness Principles provide methodology for implementing and maintaining trustworthiness of IoT systems and services.
Considering IoT use cases across sectors, it can be assumed that data blocks from/to sensors and actuators, referred to as IoT data, are transferred across networks. To reduce traffic volume and comply with various user requirements on QoS (Quality of Service), it is reasonable that an IoT Data exchange platform should be deployed. ISO/IEC 30161-1 ED1: Internet of Things (IoT) - Data exchange platform for IoT services - Part 1: General requirements and architecture specifies requirements for an Internet of Things (IoT) data exchange platform for various services in the technology areas.
ISO/IEC 30165: Internet of Things (IoT) — Real-time IoT framework is to provide a guideline for deploying an RT-IoT system to avoid pitfalls that usually occur during real-time system developments. It focuses on real-time capability in addition to very general description because failing on timing constraints could cause serious damage to an IoT system or to its environment, including injury or even death of people involved.
Interoperability is a major challenge for the Internet of Things (IoT). The real potential of the IoT lies in facilitating largescale sharing of high-quality context-rich information through systems-of-IoT-systems, rather than IoT systems that operate as isolated technology silos. Real large-scale interoperability requires layers of standards, and each layer addresses different interoperability challenges. ISO/IEC 21823-1: Internet of Things (IoT) - Interoperability for IOT Systems — Part 1: Framework is a series which addresses issues that relate to interoperability of the communications between IoT systems entities, both between different IoT systems and within a single IoT system. And ISO/IEC 21823-2: Internet of Things (IoT) - Interoperability for IOT Systems — Part 2: Transport Interoperability standard specifies a framework and requirements for transport interoperability, in order to enable the construction of IoT systems with information exchange, peer-to-peer connectivity and seamless communication both between different IoT systems and also among entities within an IoT system. While ISO/IEC 21823-3: Internet of Things (IoT) - Interoperability for IOT Systems — Part 3: Semantic interoperability standard specifies IoT semantic interoperability is the facet which enables the exchange of data between IoT systems using understood data information models
IEEE P1912, Standard for Privacy and Security Architecture for Consumer Wireless Devices defines by use of a common communication architecture for diverse wireless communication devices such as, but not limited to, devices equipped with near field communication (NFC), home area network (HAN), wireless area network (WAN) and wireless personal area network (WPAN) technologies, or radio frequency identification technology (RFID), and the proximity considerations attendant to these areas.
IEEE 1451-99, Standard for Harmonization and security of IoT utilizes the advanced capabilities of the XMPP protocol, such as providing globally authenticated identities, authorization, presence, life cycle management, interoperable communication, IoT discovery and provisioning.
IEEE P2413 - Standard for an architectural framework for IOT defines an architectural framework for the Internet of Things (IoT), including descriptions of various IoT domains, definitions of IoT domain abstractions, and identification of commonalities between different IoT domains.
IEEE 802.15.4-2015 - IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks define protocol and compatible interconnection for data communication devices using low data-rate, low-power, and low-complexity short-range radio frequency (RF) transmissions in a wireless personal area network (WPAN) are defined in this standard.